Use of lentiviral vectors in vaccination


Introduction: Lentiviral vectors have emerged as powerful vectors for vaccination, due to their high efficiency to transduce dendritic cells and to induce long-lasting humoral immunity, CD8+ T cells, and effective protection in numerous preclinical animal models of infection and oncology.

Areas covered: Here, we reviewed the literature, highlighting the relevance of lentiviral vectors in vaccinology. We recapitulated both their virological and immunological aspects of lentiviral vectors. We compared lentiviral vectors to the gold standard viral vaccine vectors, i.e. adenoviral vectors, and updated the latest results in lentiviral vector-based vaccination in preclinical models.

Expert opinion: Lentiviral vectors are non-replicative, negligibly inflammatory, and not targets of preexisting immunity in human populations. These are major characteristics to consider in vaccine development. The potential of lentiviral vectors to transduce non-dividing cells, including dendritic cells, is determinant in their strong immunogenicity. Notably, lentiviral vectors can be engineered to target antigen expression to specific host cells. The very weak inflammatory properties of these vectors allow their use in mucosal vaccination, with particular interest in infectious diseases that affect the lungs or brain, including COVID-19. Recent results in various preclinical models have reinforced the interest of these vectors in prophylaxis against infectious diseases and in onco-immunotherapy.

Keywords: Antigen expression in vivo; humoral immunity; lentiviral vectors; long-lasting immune memory; non-integrating lentiviral vectors; t-cell immunity; transduction; vaccination.

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Source : https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34620025/

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